Computer History and Impact of Computers to the World

Computers were first designed to help a person calculate numbers; this function can be seen as far back as 2000 B.C. with the use of the abacus. Modern computers are simply very advanced calculators. Almost any mathematical function can be plugged into a computer, and the computer will solve almost instantaneously. The use of a computer as a calculating device takes away the monotonous task of calculating by brute force.

Personal computers have completely revolutionized the way the world, lives, works, and conducts business. Strictly-speaking, computers arrived on the scene way back in 1936 when one Konrad Zuse produced what was then called the Z1 computer. This was a cumbersome machine that could perform simple calculations and also crunch simple data. This was not as sophisticated as what we have today but it served to set the foundation for further research and in 1944, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry from Iowa University built on this model and produced several innovations of the computer which was capable of producing arithmetic calculations, parallel [processing, memory regeneration, and other simple computing tasks. The research was taken further at Harvard University, then IBM, the business conglomerate joined the fray and in 1953 produced what was then the world’s first sophisticated computer. Even then, it was still large, occupying entire floors and consuming untold power.

As we have mentioned, computers have completely changed the way we live and work. Today, computers are in almost every office. There are still offices in some parts of the world which still don’t have computers but this is now rare because, without computers, work is inefficient and cumbersome. Take for instance calculations. It would take days for companies to do simple calculations not to mention companies that deal with lots of material and inventory. Computers make this work simple and allow businesses to become more efficient on a day to day basis.

Another use of computers is communication. With computers has come the wondrous world of the Internet or what is called in other circles, the World Wide Web or Information Superhighway. As much as the computer has changed the way we work, they have also revolutionized the way we communicate. The term “the world is a smaller place” or phrases like “global market place”. This is because the Internet has made communication so easy and seamless that there have people can communicate instantaneously regardless of what part of the globe they are located. The world of email, although it hasn’t completely resulted in the eradication of snail mail, has nevertheless caused a decline in visits to the post office or the purchase of stamps. All this is because people now sit behind a computer and email back and forth. To go even further, specialized Internet software run by many major companies such as Microsoft, Yahoo, and Google has made it possible to chat in real-time with someone on the other side of the globe. Video conferencing has also been made possible. This has completely changed the way we conduct meetings. Businesses can now even open branches in other countries faster because top-level management can communicate with lower management via video conferencing. People can actually see each other regardless of where they are located and all this is courtesy of the advent of computers and the Internet. Computers have evolved a lot since and are now in almost half of all US households and most offices in the rest of the world.

Personal computers today can hold up to 32 gigabytes of memory. They can be used to store music, pictures, documents, videos, and much more. Computers are able to be reprogrammed to suit any user’s needs. This is one of the key traits of a computer today.

Computers have changed the world in many ways. They allow huge amounts of information to be stored in a small space. They also allow a person to calculate mathematical problems with ease. Finally, computers allow people to communicate with one another through internet sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp, and Twitter.

For Business

In today`s life computers have impacted many fields such as the business fields. Many business organizations need computers to keep track of accounts, money, and other stuff that they need. It has been noticed that business people use computers a lot both in their homes and in their working places. One may see that these people make pie charts and graphs that they use for presentations during business meetings where most of these charts were made with the help of computers. The business field uses computers a lot in their activities.

Nevertheless, the business organization nowadays use online marketing to advertise and contact with their consumers from different parts of the world without direct contact. For instance, at Amazon, this is an efficient way of business since it does not limit the area of supplies and consumers. It is through the use of computers that they are able to perform these activities.

For Entertainment

Another area that computers have impacted is the entertainment area. It has been seen that most of the people love science fiction and action movies and those that have neat effects like Matrix or Harry Potter. Well, the graphics and animations used in those movies were done by computers themselves. Most of the movies today use these graphics to make movie effects look realistic. For instance, in Harry Potter where Harry has to fight dragons and big snakes, all those effects look real but they are not realistic and some movies where we see aliens, space ships, monsters, or flying men. Some movies are even made by computers from top to bottom like Toy Story and Wall E.

Not only movies but also game consoles use computer animations like the Play Station, PC, and Nintendo. And it has been seen that games made by 3D graphics have been a big breakthrough in gaming. All thanks to the awesome computer graphics. Even the music industry has been impacted in its way. Since music editing and video making all require computers to create effects or edit videos. Thus computers have a great deal of effect in the entertainment industry today.

For Educational

The educational field has been impacted by computers as well in its own way. Like in universities computers help students a lot with their assignments and presentations. For instance, a student had to do a project on World Religions; he would use the encyclopedia to search for information. Even when presenting their works like for presentations one would use Microsoft PowerPoint and writing of essays would require Microsoft word.

Even teachers themselves use computers as well. They use computers to keep track of grades or prepare notes and presentations for their students. Through servers/networks educational institutes can share and control resources, by connecting computer devices together which saves a lot of time and money. For lecturers it becomes easy when a lecturer is giving a lecture then students can just take note rather than printing out pages and pages of notes. Nevertheless, e-learning is also a product of computer development. Thus computers have a great deal of importance in the educational field.

For Medical

This is one important field that computers have impacted. Computers help in hospitals and even in small pharmacies. Doctors and nurses use computers to make records on medication of patients and in what amount so they wouldn`t lose track. But in big hospitals computers are also used to keep records of every patient. They also keep records of medical bills and equipment.

Nevertheless, scientists need computers so they could find cures to different diseases that keep erupting every day. If it wasn`t for computers these cures wouldn`t have been found. Therefore computers are important since they help us maintain our health.

Space Exploration

Computers have had a great deal of impact in this area. Computers help in designing the right kinds of equipment and ships that are used nowadays for most exploration. For instance, a large organization like NASA needs these kinds of machines for space exploration. In space, small errors or miscalculations can create serious problems that cannot be easily corrected. Computers provide faster and more accurate handling of data, both in planning a mission and in analyzing parameters during a mission. Without them, effective space exploration would be nearly impossible. This has proven to be successful since the everyday huge deal of inventions and discoveries from these explorations, like life in mars. And now scientists are trying to find if there is another life form on other planets. Computers also help them to solve complex mathematics such as from which degree/angle should the rocket be launched, which would be quite difficult for humans to calculate.

Finally, computers have changed the way that we communicate as a society. People can now talk to one another in almost no time at all through the use of social networking sites, and people can even live video chat with applications such as Skype. Imagine, if this idea had been presented to scientists 50 years ago, the presenter would have been laughed out of the conversation.


10 Key Responsibilities of Computer Forensics

One of the biggest threats facing businesses and corporations today is that of Cyber-attacks and threats. If these are large enough in scale and magnitude, it could even be considered as an act of Cyber-attacks, in which a significant impact can be felt in both regarding cost and human emotion.

In this regard, once the lines of defense have been beefed up, these tests can push these defense mechanisms to their absolute breaking point, to determine and uncover any hidden weaknesses or holes.

Regarding the former, this is where the role of forensics comes into play. For instance, any remnants of the Cyber-attack and any evidence left behind at the scene needs to be collected very carefully collected and examined. It is from this point onwards then the questions of “who, what, where, when, and why” can be answered by the forensics examiners and investigators.

It is important to keep in mind that the field of forensics, especially as it relates to Information Technology is very broad in nature, and involves many subspecialties. These include digital forensics, mobile forensics, database forensics, logical access forensics, etc. to just name a few.

A Definition of Computer Forensics and Its Importance
The term forensics literally means using some sort of established scientific process for the collection, analysis, and presentation of the evidence which has been collected. However, all forms of evidence are important, especially when a Cyber-attack has occurred. Thus, a formal definition of computer forensics can be presented as follows:

“It is the discipline that combines the elements of law and computer science to collect and analyze data from computer systems, networks, wireless communications, and storage devices in a way that is admissible as evidence in a court of law.”

Obviously, when a Cyber-attack has occurred, collecting all relevant evidence is of utmost importance to answer the questions which were outlined above. However, keep in mind that the forensics examiner/investigator is particularly interested in a particular piece of evidence, which is known specifically as “latent data.”

In the Cybersecurity world, this kind of data (also known as “ambient data”) is not easily seen or accessible upon first glance at the scene of a Cyber-attack. In other words, it takes a much deeper level of investigation by the computer forensics expert to unearth them. Obviously, this data has many uses to it, but it was implemented in such a way that access to it has been extremely limited.

In this article, we provide an overview of the field of computer forensics. We focus primarily on what it is about, the importance of it, and the general steps that are involved in conducting a computer forensics case.

A computer forensics job involves conducting investigations, data recovery, and electronic discovery. As one, you need to possess a solid foundation of technical experience and expertise, possess strong communication skills and the ability to meet an individual’s expectations. The job scope is very wide. Let’s look at 10 of the key responsibilities as below.

1. Plan, organize, conduct, and manage a variety of computer forensic examination activities such as conducting live analysis on networks, and multiple platforms.

2. Provide advice on related technical issues to enhance forensic engagements.

3. Provide computer forensic services such as digital evidence preservation, analysis, data recovery, tape recovery, electronic mail extraction, database examination and etc.

4. Manage and perform comprehensive technical analyses and interpret of computer-related evidence such as e-mail, accounting software, various databases, and information stored on electronic devices.

5. Ensure that evidence collection methods are conducted, managed, and archived in a manner consistent to maintain preservation and protection of data and evidence.

6. Ensure all lab hardware and software are verified and validated as required by the State Law.

7. Evaluate and troubleshoot a variety of technical issues including hardware and software troubleshooting.

8. Conduct security assessments, penetration testing, and ethical hacking and conduct exams on compromised computers and servers.

9. Work according to the budget by completing it within the timeframe.

10. Perform other job-related duties as necessary such as demonstrate effective communication and work closely with partners, managers, staff, and clients.

The list goes on.

It is worth mentioning that as computer forensics, you are expected to have knowledge and experience in operating systems such as Windows, Macintosh, Linux or UNIX, and DOS. Besides, you must possess good writing and communication skills. Last but not least, as a result of multi-tasking, the ability to manage it is critical. Hence, critical thinking, problem-solving, and the ability to endure long working hours is vital.


Network Administrator Certifications – An Overview

In the modern business world, computers are king. Widely present in offices of all types, from law firms to doctors’ offices to the business world, these machines have the ability to store and quickly manipulate large amounts of data. Computers have been around in one form or another since the 1940s; however, it was only since the 1980s that computers enjoyed widespread use in business, with personal and networked computing truly gaining popularity when the Internet became widely available in the 1990s.

Accordingly, the number of computer-related careers has expanded considerably in availability and scope since then. There exist jobs for high- and low-level programming professionals; user interface designers; and software engineers. These jobs typically require extensive schooling, with additional experience acquired on the job.

There are, however, information technology and computer jobs that require significantly less schooling. Individuals are employed as network administrators; technical support professionals; and computer repair technicians — and often, they are eligible for this sort of employment after just several months of study. This article will discuss some types of quick-study computer education and career training programs that lead to professional certification — and often, directly to technology careers.

The A+ certification is designed to prove a student’s abilities as a general computer technician. A+-certified technicians understand computer systems inside and out. They are as comfortable working with hardware (the “guts” of the computer) as they are with operating systems, software, networks, and files. They have the ability to troubleshoot computer problems and to achieve resolutions to those problems.

Students seeking technical support, computer repair, or networking administration careers often begin with the A+ certification. This certificate is recognized as showing worker competence and achievement in several computers- and technology-related fields. CompTIA sets the standards for this exam, which provides a good foundation for further competency classes and exams, such as Linux/UNIX exams and various network certifications. This certificate can lead to an entry-level technology career, from which the worker might eventually move to an advanced technical support or networking career.

The Network+ certification is also a CompTIA standardized exam. To prepare for this exam, students will study the basics of computer networking, as well as more advanced networking concepts. These concepts can include networking hardware; Ethernet setup and configuration; cable interface; network protocols like TCP/IP protocols, and wireless networking. Students will also study how to connect networked systems and to set up clients and servers for remote Internet access.

CompTIA suggests that individuals who wish to seek a career in the networking field should have 9 months of experience, or equivalent training, before sitting for the certification exam. There also exist a number of adult learning institutions and quick-study programs that can give students the appropriate levels of experience they will need for such an exam.

Like the A+ certification, the Network + certification also enables students to pursue further technology certifications or to seek increasingly advanced computer technology career positions. The Network + certification is also good preparation for other certifications, such as those required by Cisco or Novell.

The Security 5 certification is established and administered by the International Council of E-Commerce Consultants. This organization considers it to be an entry-level security certification. Nonetheless, it is recommended that students or network administration career professionals possess the equivalent knowledge of A+ and Network + exam material if they wish to seek careers in network security.

This exam covers a variety of network and desktop security principles. Students will need to have a solid foundation of basic computer security concepts, like firewalls and hack-proof log-ins. They will also need to understand computer cryptography, e-mail, and communications security, secure site, and Web browser procedures, and file transfer/FTP security. Desktop and hard drive security, portable and wireless security, and secure computing with third-party devices are additional topics covered.

This exam, when combined with another professional certification or prior networking and information systems experience, can be a powerful career asset. For those computer users who are not employed in the networking or information sciences sectors, the Security 5 certification can be a great asset in protecting the privacy and integrity of personal data.

The Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST) certification is specific to information technology applications in the Windows desktop environment and Windows operating system. It is considered to be a beginner-level credential, and it demonstrates that an individual is competent in assisting end-users and helping to test and troubleshoot Microsoft desktops and applications. This Microsoft certificate can be completed in tandem with other certifications supported by Microsoft, including the Microsoft Office Specialist (MOS) certification and the Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDA).

Currently, professional Windows environments are in a transitory phase between Windows 7 and Windows 10. 7’s large allocated operating memory requirements and compatibility difficulties have caused 7 to remain widely used in the workplace — so there are some career environments in which the MCDST, MOS, MCDA, and other certifications are necessary. Network administration specialists and information sciences students should be aware, however, that Microsoft is changing the certification requirements in accordance with the new 7 user interface and desktop functions.


Learn More About Support in IT

Support in IT has become a valuable service that in today’s world, many companies can’t do without. Technology affects our lives a lot and people in the 21st century have become so dependent on their computer that they actually can’t do many things without it. IT services and support are often the best way to go to get the problem handled.

Regardless of where you live in the world, there are now a lot of services available that can help you should you have any difficulties with your machine. Of course, before you go with one of them you will need to check a few things. No one likes to contract services from a company that has a bad reputation and factually provides bad support.

Aspects to keep in mind

1. First of all the reputation of the services and support a company offers should be checked thoroughly. When you have a problem you’ll want it solved as soon as possible, saving time, disruption and money. The internet is full of reviews of these companies and in order to check them, it’s easy to log-in on Google, type IT services and support company reviews and get a list with dozens of results to check out.

2. Reliability is another factor to keep in mind when looking for its services and support. When you contract the services of such a company you will want to make sure that they have experts who will be able to help you regardless of the problem you’re dealing with. The lack of ineffectiveness will only result in a waste of time on your side and of course money. So go with a company that you know has computer experts who can always help you no matter what you’re dealing with.

3. Professionalism is also a vital component one such company needs to have. Before you will delve into the services of a company you will need to make sure that it’s professional. Just send them an e-mail and ask them about some of the services and support they are offering and see the way they respond to you. Count in the time it took them to offer you feedback and analyze the words they will write to you. If they sound professional and friendly and of course, willing to let you know more about their services, then you have a winner. So whenever you have some problems with your computer now you know who and what to look for.

How To

Troubleshooting Tips For Laptop Owners When Your Laptop Suddenly Switch Off

It can be so annoying that at one moment you are sat there working on your laptop. Then without any warning everything on the screen just disappears and all you are left with is a blank screen! The laptop has mysteriously switched off.

Obviously the first thing that you are going to check are all your leads to make sure the power cable has not come loose and inadvertently shut down your laptop. If is not the case and your power adaptor is still plugged in correctly then the first thing to try is to unplug your adaptor and try to do a power cycle.

This may sound quite complicated but in effect it is quite easy to do. Step one is to unplug any power source linked to the laptop. After this you must disconnect any external devices that your have linked to your laptop.

Once you have completed those steps you need to remove your battery. After removing the battery from your laptop just press and hold your power button down.

It may sound a silly thing to do given that you have just taken out the battery but this does in fact work in a lot of cases. This is due to the fact that if you have been using a laptop for a while you could have some static build up in some of your internal elements of your laptop.

This in effect can make your laptop shut down by itself occasionally. This process may sometimes work when you lose an internet connection.

Once these steps have been completed you should check your power source and your battery separately. If the laptop works with the battery and not the power source the chances are that your power adaptor is faulty. If the laptop works with the power source but not just on the battery then you probably need a new battery.

Some laptops have warning lights for different errors. If this is the case with your laptop then you should just be able to check the user’s manual for any faults.

How To

Tips to Troubleshoot Windows Problems and Annoyances

Is your computer behaving abnormally? Are certain programs starting automatically when you don’t want them to? Facing difficulties to install or uninstall a program? Is the sound on your PC not working? These are some of the common annoyances that almost every computer users face. This article tells you to troubleshoot these Windows problems and annoyances. You may also get online tech support from a PC repair company to perform this task.

There are a number of built-in tools in Windows that help the users to accomplish the task smoothly. Advanced users go for the free Windows troubleshooting tools that provide more information regarding potential causes of problems and how to fix them. Let’s take a look at some of these tools.

System Information for Windows comes first in this regard. It is packed up with a number of troubleshooting tools. Software, hardware, and network resources those are present on your computer. Here you get detailed information including things such as device temperatures; software license keys; installed multimedia codecs; and more.

Sysinternals Process Explorer is also a very useful name in this context. Described as “Task Manager on steroids,” this tool shows a tree-view of all the running processes. Process Explorer displays more information about the running processes as compared to the Task Manager. More than one processes as well as a whole tree could be killed, frozen, or resumed using this tool.

Another useful Sysinternals tool is Autoruns. All of the programs that are loaded when Windows starts up display are set in Autorun. Startup folder, Sidebar gadgets, codecs as well as scheduled tasks, services, device drivers, etc. are some of them. Through the Autoruns you can have a look at the startup items that you may not require to run all the time as they consume system resources. Unlocker is also a useful tool that you would like to use. Right-click on the stubborn file, choose Unlocker. This will display what program has a lock on the file and then end the offending process.

ProcessActivityView lets the user inspect the file accesses of a running program. This program makes a log file and assist the users to debug problems in which the file read-write operations are not conducted properly. Windows Vista and Windows 7 operating system come with Resource Monitor, which lists the way resources are used in your computer.

All these tools are truly outstanding and they are truly outstanding for programmers and other tech-savvy users. If you are not a tech-savvy person, it is suggested not to use these tools. Or else, you can create a system restore point and then go for making any changes. This is because if any problem occurs, you can roll back your computer to an earlier good configuration.

There are many PC repair companies that also help the computer users to troubleshoot any and all types of computer problems. They employ certified technicians who are immensely experienced in dealing with any type of Windows problems. Since they are experienced, you can get the best support.

How To

Network Troubleshooting Commands – You Should Know These

Network troubleshooting tools are a necessity for every network administrator. When getting started in the networking field, it is important to amass a number of tools that can be used to troubleshoot a variety of different network conditions.

While it is true that the use of specific tools can be subjective and at the discretion of the engineer, the selection of tools in this article has been made based on their generality and common use. This article reviews the top 10 basic tools that can help you troubleshoot most networking issues.

IPCONFIG. Short for Internet Protocol Configuration, ipconfig is used on windows to display the PCP/IP configuration such as IP Address, Subnet Mask, Default Gateway, DNS Server…

IPconfig is a troubleshooting command as well, as shown below

  • ipconfig /release is used to release the computer’s IP configuration, and prepares the network adapter to get a fresh TCP/IP address configuration.
  • ipconfig /renew allows the network adapter to get a new TCP/IP configuration.

PING. Short for Packet Internet Groper is used to test connectivity between two network devices. The host device sends an Internet Control Message Protocol, known as an ICMP Echo Request, the destination node then responds with an ICMP Echo Reply.

PING This IP address is used in conjunction with ping to test the loopback address on computers. The tool is very handy and would be the first to try when network issues ever occur. The IP is a class A address that has been a reserve for the purpose of testing that the network card and the TCP/IP stack work fine.

Traceroute or Tracert in windows is used to display the path taken by an IP packet, from the source to the destination computer.

TELNET (Telecommunication Network). It is a command used to access another computer remotely. Also known as a command request, is the most utilized by network administrators. A Telnet request may be accepted or rejected by remote computers; depending on the permission you have you may be prompt to enter a username and password. Example below:

Microsoft Telnet> o

( to )

Connecting To…

The above telnet command was used on Windows 7, and could be different on other operating systems. Telnet is not enabled by default on Windows 7 as it is on Windows XP, it has to be done through Control Panel.

Nslookup. Most used by network administrators, nslookup command is a tool used for DNS (Domain Name System) Testing and Troubleshooting. It is advisable to learn how DNS works before using this command. Example below:

C:UsersBerbo>nslookup “just for illustration”

Default Server:  SE572


Hostname. Used across a verity of platforms, the command is used to configure or find the name of a computer or other network device. An example below on windows:



ARP. Short for Address Resolution Protocol, ARP is used to find a MAC address or physical address when only the IP address is known. Example below:

C:UsersBerbo>arp -a

Interface: — 0xb

Internet Address      Physical Address      Type           00-01-e3-ef-69-b0     dynamic         ff-ff-ff-ff-ff-ff          static            01-00-5e-00-00-16     static

Network commands are great tools used by computers and networks, administrators to manage the network. The list of commands shown and described above is not exhaustive, there are many more and it is advisable to do some research on your own. We have seen the basic commands, which might help to troubleshoot within a home or medium-size network.

How To

Troubleshooting When Your Computer Freeze (Lockup) Problems

How familiar does the following sound? Your computer was working fine, but then suddenly started locking up (aka hanging or freezing), rebooting itself (crashing), or shutting down spontaneously? If you know only too well what I am talking about, then read on! Performing the simple steps below can fix the majority of lockup cases.

1. Check for recently installed software or hardware.

If the lockups started to happen after you installed a new piece of hardware, new software programs, or new drivers, uninstall it and see if the problem goes away.

2. Run your antivirus program.

One of the first things to do in the case of sudden lockups is to run your antivirus program. Check your antivirus manufacturer’s website for updates and the latest virus definition files. (This is absolutely necessary, outdated antivirus is not going to be of any use!) If you don’t have antivirus software installed – or if updates are unavailable – run one of the web-based antiviruses scans that some major antivirus vendors like Trend Micro are offering for free. You can find a comprehensive list of available web-based scans and free antivirus programs on

3. Run some good spyware removal tool.

If your machine is not infected with any viruses, it is still possible that it has some harmful adware or spyware is present. Download and run some good spyware removal tool such as AdAware or Microsoft AntiSpyware. Check for a list of free spyware removal applications.

4. Check for free hard drive space.

When no viruses are found, check out free hard drive space on drive C:. Make sure there is more than 20% of free space available; low disk space can lead to random lockups.

5. Check for overheating.

Overheating is another known cause of lockups. It can be caused by problems with fans inside the case, dust buildup, or other cooling problems. Make sure the power supply fan and CPU fan are running and free of dust buildup. You can check the temperatures inside the case by running Motherboard monitor – make sure the temperatures are within the preset limits. Be very careful while cleaning inside the computer case (use plastic vacuum crevice tool) and NEVER OPEN THE POWER SUPPLY CASE as it contains high voltage.

6. Check the hard disk.

Check the hard disk – it is possible that its logical structure is corrupted. To check the disk for errors, right-click on the disk C: icon in “My Computer”, select the “Tools” tab, check all checkboxes in the “Check disk options” field, and press the “Check now” button. It should ask whether you want to schedule the check next time you restart your computer – answer “Yes” and restart your PC. The check will be performed automatically after startup; it can take a while, so be patient. The program will attempt to fix some problems automatically – however, if the hard disk is failing physically, it will need to be replaced. It is also a good idea to run Disk Defragmenter (located in Start Menu > Programs > Accessories > System Tools) to optimize data placement on the hard disk for increased performance and reliability.

7. Check the memory.

Sometimes random lockups can be attributed to computer memory (RAM) starting to fail. You can test the memory by running Windows Memory Diagnostic that can be downloaded from If memory problems are found, try re-seating the RAM (pull it out and plug it back in). If it doesn’t work, replace the defective RAM.

8. Check for other hardware problems (advanced users).

More hardware-related problems can be diagnosed by running hardware tests from the Ultimate Boot CD that can be downloaded from However, you should only use it if you know what are you doing – some programs on that CD can be dangerous when used inappropriately (for example, some of them can wipe the contents of your hard disk).

9. Update Windows and drivers.

Some lockups can be caused by outdated software components – update your windows and drives by running a windows update: (it’s a good idea to run it regularly).

The above steps will help diagnose and eliminate the most common causes of lockups. Hundreds more of other possible scenarios need to be dealt with on a case-by-case basis, as it all goes down to your particular computer configuration. Asking on PC troubleshooting forums/newsgroups should help you figure out solutions to not-so-obvious lockup cases.

How To

Troubleshooting Tips to Repair Illegal Operation When Happen to Your Computer


“Illegal operation” is one of the most common error messages that appear on a computer stating that an illegal operation has been performed and the program should be closed due to it. When confronted with this error, most of the users think that they accidentally clicked on something, which they are not supposed to do. But, the reason being that the program contains a command, which the program is unable to perform, and it can’t continue running.

Illegal operations can be caused by several other factors including, third party applications are causing memory conflicts, data is not being properly read from the required source, corrupt files, computer virus, error in program coding, corruption or problem with Windows, etc. In case you have encountered an “Illegal operation” error message, following the given below the computer troubleshooting tips can help to fix errors on your computer.

Step 1. Third-party applications running in the background is one of the most common reasons for illegal operation. In case, you are encountering this problem when trying to run a game or program, it is recommended to remove the third-party applications running in the background ensuring that these applications are not the cause of the problem.

Step 2. If you are running a program from a CD or a floppy disk, verify that the disk does not have any physical error.

Step 3. In case your computer memory is loaded with a computer virus and has changed the data of program files when infecting a computer, it may result in this error. Therefore, it is always recommended to install your system with the latest virus definition.

Step 4. If you are receiving an error message while running a particular program, check the program’s compatibility with the version of the Windows operating system you are running.

In case, you are unable to locate the cause of illegal operation, you can try fixing it using tools included in Windows. The scan disk tool and disk defragmenter can help you to resolve this issue.


Sometimes locating the cause for illegal operation error messages is quite difficult.


If you continue to experience illegal operation errors while working with an application, it is always recommended to contact software vendor.

You can also contact any technical firm that offers technical support services to deal with all issues you are encountering with your PC.

How To

A Guide to Troubleshooting Smart Devices and The Internet of Things

You can’t open a magazine, got a web site, or attend an event these days without hearing the term Internet of Things or IoT. Seems like today everything can or should be connected. Nice idea, but what does it mean if you’re thinking about security?

Open standards
To start, you should know that any kind of IP-based video surveillance and physical access control devices such as security cameras and door controllers are in fact IoT devices (in fact, we invented what many call the first IoT device 20 years ago when we launched our first network camera, but that’s another story). These connected devices offer non-proprietary and open standards allowing users to integrate them with other devices and software as they wish and without restrictions.

The further adoption of IoT will drive this integration beyond currently separate device categories. There is a huge opportunity to manage multiple systems with just one management console. From smoke and gas sensors to video surveillance, physical access control, loudspeakers, air conditioning, and heating, escalators, and elevators to window shades, light switches, and automatic doors – all these devices can be managed together with the IoT.
Internet of Security Things.

From a security standpoint, IoT is more than just cameras. For example, Axis introduced what is best described as an IoT loudspeaker in March of 2015. It can be integrated with just about anything. You can even assign it a phone number and make announcements through making respective calls to that number.

A quick primer on how something like that works: it is a self-contained loudspeaker that offers signal transmission, decoding, amplification, microphone, and speaker all in one unit. Unlike analog loudspeakers, there is no need for a separate amplifier. An external power supply is also not required, thanks to Power over Ethernet (PoE) support. It can, therefore, be very flexibly installed as an extension to existing security systems allowing operators to deter unwanted activity without having to send a security guard to the scene, for example.

This is just one example of a new breed of security products. We are seeing the beginning of what is probably best named the “Internet of Security Things.” Open standards will allow previously separate device categories to be used together and accessed via a single management console. This will make security systems easier to use while providing better situational awareness and overviews of incidents.

Step 1 – Google

If you are encountering a problem, odds are the answer can be found using a search engine. Start here first!

Step 2 – Look for Clues on the Device Itself

Many smart devices will have flashing lights or other indicators when something goes wrong. This can provide clues to what is going on.

Step 3 – Check the App for the Device

Most smart devices have a corresponding app for a smartphone. This app can usually detect when the device is malfunctioning and give you tips to restore functionality.

Step 4 – Turn It Off and On Again

Yes, this may seem cliché, but turning your device off and on again may fix the issue! It only takes a minute or two, so you might as well give it a try.

Step 5 – Check the Power Source

If your smart device would not turn off and on, there’s probably something wrong with the power source. Make sure the device is really getting power, either from a battery or power cord.

Step 6 – Dig Out the Instruction Manual

If you still have the instruction manual for the product, now would be a good time to get it out. There’s usually a helpful troubleshooting section near the back. The instruction manual will contain information on how to reset the device, too.

Step 7 – Check your Wi-Fi Connection

If your device connects to Wi-Fi, make sure your Wi-Fi router is working. You can easily test this by seeing if other devices connect to the Wi-Fi. Try going to some different websites as a test. If your Wi-Fi isn’t working, try unplugging the router and plugging it back in.

If that doesn’t help, connect your computer to the wall with an ethernet cord. If you still can’t access the internet through the ethernet cord, contact your internet service provider.

Step 8 – Reset the Device

If nothing has worked, you can try to reset the device back to factory default settings.

Caution! This will remove all your settings and should only be done as a last resort. You will need to go through the device set up process all over again.

If you have the instruction manual, it should say how to reset the device. If you don’t have the instruction manual, search the internet for the factory reset process.

Step 9 – Contact the Experts

If you have tried every single one of these steps to no avail, it’s time to bring in the experts. There may be a hardware issue with your smart device. Check the device manufacturer’s website for help with warranties and repairs.