Computer History and Impact of Computers to the World

Computers were first designed to help a person calculate numbers; this function can be seen as far back as 2000 B.C. with the use of the abacus. Modern computers are simply very advanced calculators. Almost any mathematical function can be plugged into a computer, and the computer will solve almost instantaneously. The use of a computer as a calculating device takes away the monotonous task of calculating by brute force.

Personal computers have completely revolutionized the way the world, lives, works, and conducts business. Strictly-speaking, computers arrived on the scene way back in 1936 when one Konrad Zuse produced what was then called the Z1 computer. This was a cumbersome machine that could perform simple calculations and also crunch simple data. This was not as sophisticated as what we have today but it served to set the foundation for further research and in 1944, John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry from Iowa University built on this model and produced several innovations of the computer which was capable of producing arithmetic calculations, parallel [processing, memory regeneration, and other simple computing tasks. The research was taken further at Harvard University, then IBM, the business conglomerate joined the fray and in 1953 produced what was then the world’s first sophisticated computer. Even then, it was still large, occupying entire floors and consuming untold power.

As we have mentioned, computers have completely changed the way we live and work. Today, computers are in almost every office. There are still offices in some parts of the world which still don’t have computers but this is now rare because, without computers, work is inefficient and cumbersome. Take for instance calculations. It would take days for companies to do simple calculations not to mention companies that deal with lots of material and inventory. Computers make this work simple and allow businesses to become more efficient on a day to day basis.

Another use of computers is communication. With computers has come the wondrous world of the Internet or what is called in other circles, the World Wide Web or Information Superhighway. As much as the computer has changed the way we work, they have also revolutionized the way we communicate. The term “the world is a smaller place” or phrases like “global market place”. This is because the Internet has made communication so easy and seamless that there have people can communicate instantaneously regardless of what part of the globe they are located. The world of email, although it hasn’t completely resulted in the eradication of snail mail, has nevertheless caused a decline in visits to the post office or the purchase of stamps. All this is because people now sit behind a computer and email back and forth. To go even further, specialized Internet software run by many major companies such as Microsoft, Yahoo, and Google has made it possible to chat in real-time with someone on the other side of the globe. Video conferencing has also been made possible. This has completely changed the way we conduct meetings. Businesses can now even open branches in other countries faster because top-level management can communicate with lower management via video conferencing. People can actually see each other regardless of where they are located and all this is courtesy of the advent of computers and the Internet. Computers have evolved a lot since and are now in almost half of all US households and most offices in the rest of the world.

Personal computers today can hold up to 32 gigabytes of memory. They can be used to store music, pictures, documents, videos, and much more. Computers are able to be reprogrammed to suit any user’s needs. This is one of the key traits of a computer today.

Computers have changed the world in many ways. They allow huge amounts of information to be stored in a small space. They also allow a person to calculate mathematical problems with ease. Finally, computers allow people to communicate with one another through internet sites such as Facebook, Whatsapp, and Twitter.

For Business

In today`s life computers have impacted many fields such as the business fields. Many business organizations need computers to keep track of accounts, money, and other stuff that they need. It has been noticed that business people use computers a lot both in their homes and in their working places. One may see that these people make pie charts and graphs that they use for presentations during business meetings where most of these charts were made with the help of computers. The business field uses computers a lot in their activities.

Nevertheless, the business organization nowadays use online marketing to advertise and contact with their consumers from different parts of the world without direct contact. For instance, at Amazon, this is an efficient way of business since it does not limit the area of supplies and consumers. It is through the use of computers that they are able to perform these activities.

For Entertainment

Another area that computers have impacted is the entertainment area. It has been seen that most of the people love science fiction and action movies and those that have neat effects like Matrix or Harry Potter. Well, the graphics and animations used in those movies were done by computers themselves. Most of the movies today use these graphics to make movie effects look realistic. For instance, in Harry Potter where Harry has to fight dragons and big snakes, all those effects look real but they are not realistic and some movies where we see aliens, space ships, monsters, or flying men. Some movies are even made by computers from top to bottom like Toy Story and Wall E.

Not only movies but also game consoles use computer animations like the Play Station, PC, and Nintendo. And it has been seen that games made by 3D graphics have been a big breakthrough in gaming. All thanks to the awesome computer graphics. Even the music industry has been impacted in its way. Since music editing and video making all require computers to create effects or edit videos. Thus computers have a great deal of effect in the entertainment industry today.

For Educational

The educational field has been impacted by computers as well in its own way. Like in universities computers help students a lot with their assignments and presentations. For instance, a student had to do a project on World Religions; he would use the encyclopedia to search for information. Even when presenting their works like for presentations one would use Microsoft PowerPoint and writing of essays would require Microsoft word.

Even teachers themselves use computers as well. They use computers to keep track of grades or prepare notes and presentations for their students. Through servers/networks educational institutes can share and control resources, by connecting computer devices together which saves a lot of time and money. For lecturers it becomes easy when a lecturer is giving a lecture then students can just take note rather than printing out pages and pages of notes. Nevertheless, e-learning is also a product of computer development. Thus computers have a great deal of importance in the educational field.

For Medical

This is one important field that computers have impacted. Computers help in hospitals and even in small pharmacies. Doctors and nurses use computers to make records on medication of patients and in what amount so they wouldn`t lose track. But in big hospitals computers are also used to keep records of every patient. They also keep records of medical bills and equipment.

Nevertheless, scientists need computers so they could find cures to different diseases that keep erupting every day. If it wasn`t for computers these cures wouldn`t have been found. Therefore computers are important since they help us maintain our health.

Space Exploration

Computers have had a great deal of impact in this area. Computers help in designing the right kinds of equipment and ships that are used nowadays for most exploration. For instance, a large organization like NASA needs these kinds of machines for space exploration. In space, small errors or miscalculations can create serious problems that cannot be easily corrected. Computers provide faster and more accurate handling of data, both in planning a mission and in analyzing parameters during a mission. Without them, effective space exploration would be nearly impossible. This has proven to be successful since the everyday huge deal of inventions and discoveries from these explorations, like life in mars. And now scientists are trying to find if there is another life form on other planets. Computers also help them to solve complex mathematics such as from which degree/angle should the rocket be launched, which would be quite difficult for humans to calculate.

Finally, computers have changed the way that we communicate as a society. People can now talk to one another in almost no time at all through the use of social networking sites, and people can even live video chat with applications such as Skype. Imagine, if this idea had been presented to scientists 50 years ago, the presenter would have been laughed out of the conversation.


10 Key Responsibilities of Computer Forensics

One of the biggest threats facing businesses and corporations today is that of Cyber-attacks and threats. If these are large enough in scale and magnitude, it could even be considered as an act of Cyber-attacks, in which a significant impact can be felt in both regarding cost and human emotion.

In this regard, once the lines of defense have been beefed up, these tests can push these defense mechanisms to their absolute breaking point, to determine and uncover any hidden weaknesses or holes.

Regarding the former, this is where the role of forensics comes into play. For instance, any remnants of the Cyber-attack and any evidence left behind at the scene needs to be collected very carefully collected and examined. It is from this point onwards then the questions of “who, what, where, when, and why” can be answered by the forensics examiners and investigators.

It is important to keep in mind that the field of forensics, especially as it relates to Information Technology is very broad in nature, and involves many subspecialties. These include digital forensics, mobile forensics, database forensics, logical access forensics, etc. to just name a few.

A Definition of Computer Forensics and Its Importance
The term forensics literally means using some sort of established scientific process for the collection, analysis, and presentation of the evidence which has been collected. However, all forms of evidence are important, especially when a Cyber-attack has occurred. Thus, a formal definition of computer forensics can be presented as follows:

“It is the discipline that combines the elements of law and computer science to collect and analyze data from computer systems, networks, wireless communications, and storage devices in a way that is admissible as evidence in a court of law.”

Obviously, when a Cyber-attack has occurred, collecting all relevant evidence is of utmost importance to answer the questions which were outlined above. However, keep in mind that the forensics examiner/investigator is particularly interested in a particular piece of evidence, which is known specifically as “latent data.”

In the Cybersecurity world, this kind of data (also known as “ambient data”) is not easily seen or accessible upon first glance at the scene of a Cyber-attack. In other words, it takes a much deeper level of investigation by the computer forensics expert to unearth them. Obviously, this data has many uses to it, but it was implemented in such a way that access to it has been extremely limited.

In this article, we provide an overview of the field of computer forensics. We focus primarily on what it is about, the importance of it, and the general steps that are involved in conducting a computer forensics case.

A computer forensics job involves conducting investigations, data recovery, and electronic discovery. As one, you need to possess a solid foundation of technical experience and expertise, possess strong communication skills and the ability to meet an individual’s expectations. The job scope is very wide. Let’s look at 10 of the key responsibilities as below.

1. Plan, organize, conduct, and manage a variety of computer forensic examination activities such as conducting live analysis on networks, and multiple platforms.

2. Provide advice on related technical issues to enhance forensic engagements.

3. Provide computer forensic services such as digital evidence preservation, analysis, data recovery, tape recovery, electronic mail extraction, database examination and etc.

4. Manage and perform comprehensive technical analyses and interpret of computer-related evidence such as e-mail, accounting software, various databases, and information stored on electronic devices.

5. Ensure that evidence collection methods are conducted, managed, and archived in a manner consistent to maintain preservation and protection of data and evidence.

6. Ensure all lab hardware and software are verified and validated as required by the State Law.

7. Evaluate and troubleshoot a variety of technical issues including hardware and software troubleshooting.

8. Conduct security assessments, penetration testing, and ethical hacking and conduct exams on compromised computers and servers.

9. Work according to the budget by completing it within the timeframe.

10. Perform other job-related duties as necessary such as demonstrate effective communication and work closely with partners, managers, staff, and clients.

The list goes on.

It is worth mentioning that as computer forensics, you are expected to have knowledge and experience in operating systems such as Windows, Macintosh, Linux or UNIX, and DOS. Besides, you must possess good writing and communication skills. Last but not least, as a result of multi-tasking, the ability to manage it is critical. Hence, critical thinking, problem-solving, and the ability to endure long working hours is vital.


Network Administrator Certifications – An Overview

In the modern business world, computers are king. Widely present in offices of all types, from law firms to doctors’ offices to the business world, these machines have the ability to store and quickly manipulate large amounts of data. Computers have been around in one form or another since the 1940s; however, it was only since the 1980s that computers enjoyed widespread use in business, with personal and networked computing truly gaining popularity when the Internet became widely available in the 1990s.

Accordingly, the number of computer-related careers has expanded considerably in availability and scope since then. There exist jobs for high- and low-level programming professionals; user interface designers; and software engineers. These jobs typically require extensive schooling, with additional experience acquired on the job.

There are, however, information technology and computer jobs that require significantly less schooling. Individuals are employed as network administrators; technical support professionals; and computer repair technicians — and often, they are eligible for this sort of employment after just several months of study. This article will discuss some types of quick-study computer education and career training programs that lead to professional certification — and often, directly to technology careers.

The A+ certification is designed to prove a student’s abilities as a general computer technician. A+-certified technicians understand computer systems inside and out. They are as comfortable working with hardware (the “guts” of the computer) as they are with operating systems, software, networks, and files. They have the ability to troubleshoot computer problems and to achieve resolutions to those problems.

Students seeking technical support, computer repair, or networking administration careers often begin with the A+ certification. This certificate is recognized as showing worker competence and achievement in several computers- and technology-related fields. CompTIA sets the standards for this exam, which provides a good foundation for further competency classes and exams, such as Linux/UNIX exams and various network certifications. This certificate can lead to an entry-level technology career, from which the worker might eventually move to an advanced technical support or networking career.

The Network+ certification is also a CompTIA standardized exam. To prepare for this exam, students will study the basics of computer networking, as well as more advanced networking concepts. These concepts can include networking hardware; Ethernet setup and configuration; cable interface; network protocols like TCP/IP protocols, and wireless networking. Students will also study how to connect networked systems and to set up clients and servers for remote Internet access.

CompTIA suggests that individuals who wish to seek a career in the networking field should have 9 months of experience, or equivalent training, before sitting for the certification exam. There also exist a number of adult learning institutions and quick-study programs that can give students the appropriate levels of experience they will need for such an exam.

Like the A+ certification, the Network + certification also enables students to pursue further technology certifications or to seek increasingly advanced computer technology career positions. The Network + certification is also good preparation for other certifications, such as those required by Cisco or Novell.

The Security 5 certification is established and administered by the International Council of E-Commerce Consultants. This organization considers it to be an entry-level security certification. Nonetheless, it is recommended that students or network administration career professionals possess the equivalent knowledge of A+ and Network + exam material if they wish to seek careers in network security.

This exam covers a variety of network and desktop security principles. Students will need to have a solid foundation of basic computer security concepts, like firewalls and hack-proof log-ins. They will also need to understand computer cryptography, e-mail, and communications security, secure site, and Web browser procedures, and file transfer/FTP security. Desktop and hard drive security, portable and wireless security, and secure computing with third-party devices are additional topics covered.

This exam, when combined with another professional certification or prior networking and information systems experience, can be a powerful career asset. For those computer users who are not employed in the networking or information sciences sectors, the Security 5 certification can be a great asset in protecting the privacy and integrity of personal data.

The Microsoft Certified Desktop Support Technician (MCDST) certification is specific to information technology applications in the Windows desktop environment and Windows operating system. It is considered to be a beginner-level credential, and it demonstrates that an individual is competent in assisting end-users and helping to test and troubleshoot Microsoft desktops and applications. This Microsoft certificate can be completed in tandem with other certifications supported by Microsoft, including the Microsoft Office Specialist (MOS) certification and the Microsoft Certified Database Administrator (MCDA).

Currently, professional Windows environments are in a transitory phase between Windows 7 and Windows 10. 7’s large allocated operating memory requirements and compatibility difficulties have caused 7 to remain widely used in the workplace — so there are some career environments in which the MCDST, MOS, MCDA, and other certifications are necessary. Network administration specialists and information sciences students should be aware, however, that Microsoft is changing the certification requirements in accordance with the new 7 user interface and desktop functions.


Learn More About Support in IT

Support in IT has become a valuable service that in today’s world, many companies can’t do without. Technology affects our lives a lot and people in the 21st century have become so dependent on their computer that they actually can’t do many things without it. IT services and support are often the best way to go to get the problem handled.

Regardless of where you live in the world, there are now a lot of services available that can help you should you have any difficulties with your machine. Of course, before you go with one of them you will need to check a few things. No one likes to contract services from a company that has a bad reputation and factually provides bad support.

Aspects to keep in mind

1. First of all the reputation of the services and support a company offers should be checked thoroughly. When you have a problem you’ll want it solved as soon as possible, saving time, disruption and money. The internet is full of reviews of these companies and in order to check them, it’s easy to log-in on Google, type IT services and support company reviews and get a list with dozens of results to check out.

2. Reliability is another factor to keep in mind when looking for its services and support. When you contract the services of such a company you will want to make sure that they have experts who will be able to help you regardless of the problem you’re dealing with. The lack of ineffectiveness will only result in a waste of time on your side and of course money. So go with a company that you know has computer experts who can always help you no matter what you’re dealing with.

3. Professionalism is also a vital component one such company needs to have. Before you will delve into the services of a company you will need to make sure that it’s professional. Just send them an e-mail and ask them about some of the services and support they are offering and see the way they respond to you. Count in the time it took them to offer you feedback and analyze the words they will write to you. If they sound professional and friendly and of course, willing to let you know more about their services, then you have a winner. So whenever you have some problems with your computer now you know who and what to look for.